Keperluan Umbrella Provisions

  • Karakter Internasional —> melintasi batas negara, para pihak berbeda WN, obyek kegiatan berada dalam wilayah yang berbeda
  • Peraturan nasional yg akan dibentuk harus memperhatikan karakter internasional pada internet
  • Level internasional — harmonisasi hukum —> PBB —- ex. Space Law, Law of the Sea, Environmental Law, International Trade Law




PBB – UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)

UNCITRAL Model law on Electronic Commerce

ITU – International Telecommunication Union

Standards for Multimedia Communication, System Security, Online Privacy, Digital Certificate, and Technical Framework for E-Commerce

WTO – Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Declaration on Global Electronic Commerce Guidelines on Consumer Protection on Electronic Commerce

European Union

Directive on the Protection of Consumers in Respect of Distance Contracts


WIPO Copyright Treaty

WIPO Internet Treaty

WIPO Performances and Phonogram Treaty


UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce

  • Resolution adopted by the general assembly on the report of the sixth committee (30 january 1997)
  • Persoalan kontrak dalam e-commerce

    Article 15:

  1. Unless otherwise agreed between the originator and the addressee, the dispatch of a data message occurs when it enters an information system outside the control of the originator or of the person who sent the data message on behalf of the originator.
  2.     Unless otherwise agreed between the originator and the addressee, the time of receipt of a data message is determined as follow: (1) if the addressee has designated an information system for the purpose of receiving data messages, receipt occurs…. (b) if the addressee has not designated an information system, receipt occurs when the data message enters an information system of the addressee


New Standards:

  • Extending the existing right of communication to the public in Berne to include text and images;
  • Adding the right of making available to the public;
  • Protecting against the abuse of technological copyright protection measures; and
  • Protecting against the deliberate alteration or removal of electronic rights management information attached to copyright material.



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